The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic tribe of Southern Africa living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. The Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with related yet distinct heritages. The main tribes are the Mpondo, Mpondomise, Bomvana, Xesibe, and Thembu. In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language. The name “Xhosa” comes from that of a legendary leader called uXhosa.
The Northern Ndebele people are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language. The Northern Ndebele were historically referred to as the Matabele which was a European corruption of ‘Ndebele’. Their history began when a Zulu chiefdom split from King Shaka in the early 18th century under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former chief in his kingdom and ally. Under his command the disgruntled Zulus went on to conquer and rule the chiefdoms of the Southern Ndebele.
Khoisan is a unifying name for two tribes of Southern Africa, who share physical and putative linguistic characteristics distinct from the Bantu majority. Culturally, the Khoisan are divided into the foraging San, or Bushmen, and the pastoral Khoi, or more specifically Khoikhoi. Previously known as Hottentots. The San include the indigenous inhabitants of Southern Africa before the southward Bantu migrations from Central and East Africa reached their region, which led to the Bantu populations displacing the Khoi and San to become the predominant inhabitants of Southern Africa. The distinct origin of the Khoi is debated. Over time, some Khoi abandoned pastoralism and adopted the hunter-gatherer economy of the San, probably due to a drying climate, and are now considered San.